Types of Equipment for Molecular Distillation

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The complete set of molecular distillation equipment includes a molecular evaporator, degassing system, feeding system, heating system, refrigeration vacuum system, and control system. The main component of molecular distillation equipment is molecular evaporator, which mainly has three types:

  1. Falling film type: It belongs to the first category and has a simple structure. However, due to the thick liquid film and low efficiency, countries rarely use it.
  2. Scraping film type: the formed liquid film is thinner, and the separation efficiency is high, but the structure is more complicated than that of the falling film type
  3. Centrifugal type: centrifugal film forming, thin film, The evaporation efficiency is high, but the structure is complex, the vacuum sealing is difficult, and the equipment production cost is high. A series of steps are usually required to improve separation efficiency to achieve multi-stage separation of different substances.

Falling Film Molecular Distiller

Due to the thick liquid film, low efficiency, and simple structure, the device is rarely used in countries around the world today. The device uses gravity to evaporate the material on the surface and form a liquid film down. The volatile material can condense on the oppositely directed condensing surface when heated.

Wiped Film Molecular Distillation Unit

In the late 1980s, my country researched wiped-film molecular distillation equipment and its application in the process. The liquid film formed by the device is thin, and the separation efficiency is high, but the structure is more complicated than the falling film type. It uses gravity to turn the material on the evaporation surface into a liquid film. Still, the thickness of the liquid film on the evaporation surface is small and evenly distributed. A rotating scraper of hard carbon or polytetrafluoroethylene is set in the distiller, which can not only fully stir the downstream liquid layer will also accelerate the renewal of the evaporation surface liquid layer, which will enhance the process of heat transfer and mass transfer. Its advantages are: the thickness of the liquid film is small, and it flows along the evaporation surface; the resting time of the material being distilled at the working temperature is short, the risk of thermal decomposition is small, and the distillation process can be carried out continuously, and the production capacity is large. The disadvantage is that the liquid distribution device is difficult to perfect, and it is difficult to ensure that the liquid film evenly covers all evaporation surfaces. The liquid flow is usually tumbling, and the resulting mist is easily splashed on the condensation surface. However, due to the relatively simple structure and low price of the device, it is currently used in most laboratories and industrial production.

Scraped Molecular Distillation Unit

Scraper technology uses Smith-style 45° diagonal chute scrapers that force material down and around the still walls, providing a high degree of film mixing through controlled scraper rotation, Effective small active motion of the material (rather than passively rolling the material against the walls of the distiller ), this achieves the shortest and controlled residence time of the material, and controllable film thickness, thus enabling To achieve the best conduction and separation efficiency of thermal material conveying. Scraped surface molecular distillation equipment uses a delicate process in which the feed liquid flows through a heated cylindrical vacuum chamber, and the more volatile components are separated from the less volatile components by the scraping of the feed liquid film. The main advantages of this process are short residence time of the feed liquid due to high vacuum efficiency and optimum mass and heat transfer. This highly efficient thermal separation technology results in minimal product degradation and the highest product quality. The exposure of the feed liquid to the heated wall is very brief (only a few seconds) due in part to the slotted scraper design, which forces the liquid to flow downwards, and the residence time, film thickness and flow characteristics are tightly controlled, with for the separation of heat-sensitive substances. In addition, the scraper with the chute does not throw the material off the walls of the still, contaminating the light components that have been separated. Compared with traditional column distillation equipment, it will recognize falling film distillation equipment, rotary evaporator, and other separation equipment, and scraped surface distillation equipment much better.

Centrifugal Molecular Distillation Unit

Centrifugal molecular distillation machine uses centrifugal force to form film, thin film, and high evaporation efficiency. But the structure is very complicated and difficult to manufacture and work. The device conveys the material to the center of the high-speed turntable. It expands on the rotating surface to form a thin film while heating and evaporation condense on the opposite condensing surface; the device is an ideal molecular distillation device. But compared to the other two devices, high-speed rotating turntables and higher vacuum sealing technology are required. Compared with the wiped film molecular distiller, the centrifugal molecular distillation device has the following advantages: due to the high-speed rotation of the turntable, the liquid film is very thin, the liquid film distribution is more uniform, and the evaporation rate and separation efficiency are better, and the material is on the evaporation surface. The heating time is short, which reduces the risk of thermal degradation of heat-sensitive materials, and the material handling capacity is larger, which is more suitable for continuous industrial production.

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Laboratory vacuum distillation equipment plays a crucial role in various scientific and industrial applications, facilitating the separation and purification of liquids with precision and efficiency. This sophisticated equipment operates under reduced pressure conditions, enabling the distillation of heat-sensitive compounds and achieving higher purity levels compared to conventional distillation methods.

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