Will the hydrothermal synthesis reactor explode?

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Will the hydrothermal synthesis reactor explode? Students who have just come into contact with hydrothermal method experiments will have such doubts and worries at the beginning, and are full of doubts about the safety of this hydrothermal synthesis reactor. How much pressure can be withstood in use, and whether the experiment is safe or not, after all, it is related to personal safety and experiment safety. There have been many safety accidents in university laboratories. Based on what I have seen and obtained in the process of manufacturing and selling hydrothermal synthesis reactors for many years, it shows that the hydrothermal synthesis reactors will not explode under normal use.

Hydrothermal synthesis reactors generally have three linings: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), para polyphenylene (PPL), steel lining or no lining. PTFE lining can withstand temperature up to 200℃, while ppl lining can reach 300℃, steel lining or no lining can reach 600℃ high temperature. After understanding the high experimental temperature of various material linings, the choice of solvent is the first step in hydrothermal reaction or solvothermal reaction. Check the saturated vapor pressure of the solvent used in the experiment, determine the filling ratio, and ensure that the pressure during the experiment does not exceed water. The endurance limit of thermal synthesis reactors. After selecting the solvent, estimate the saturated vapor pressure of the solvent according to the temperature, and the pressure must be controlled within the limit pressure of the hydrothermal synthesis reactor. Generally, the actual pressure is close to the saturated vapor pressure of the solvent. If the pressure is relatively high, the filling ratio of the material in the kettle body should be considered, the material should be reduced, and enough space should be left. The experimental pressure can be calculated according to the Clapeyron-Clausius equation. Therefore, the selected solvent must be cautious, and the pressure of the reaction that will release heat or generate gas during the experiment must be well controlled. It cannot be operated only by estimation and experience, otherwise it will easily cause danger. Hydrogen peroxide (hydrogen peroxide), nitric acid, ammonia water, potassium permanganate and other solvents that will generate gas or exotherm should be as cautious as possible. If it must be used, it is necessary to estimate the pressure in the tank in advance, and choose a hydrothermal synthesis reactor with a pressure gauge and an exhaust valve.

The safety of the hydrothermal synthesis reactor is closely related to whether it will explode or not and the selection of raw materials. Generally, it can be processed with stainless steel pipes or solid bars. The stainless steel pipe has a short processing cycle and less waste, but the pipe itself is processed by billet hot rolling extrusion and cold drawing process, the strength is poor, and the ultimate pressure it can withstand is small; the stainless steel solid bar has a long processing cycle and more waste, the advantages That is, it has high strength and can withstand greater pressure, because the bar is made by hot rolling and forging of steel billets. Any part of Jitai hydrothermal synthesis reaction kettle is processed by stainless steel solid bar, so as to ensure that the kettle with the same wall thickness can withstand greater pressure, and the measured 10MPA will not be deformed or cracked. Before purchasing a hydrothermal synthesis reactor, there was a misunderstanding that the thicker the stainless steel outer tank, the better. It is true that the thicker the better if the thickness is several times different, but when the difference is almost the same, the more critical factor is the selection of raw materials.

The safety of the hydrothermal synthesis reactor, whether it will explode or not is also related to the processing of the thread. At present, the hydrothermal synthesis reactor is sealed by screwing the lid. The pitch of the thread is large and deep to withstand greater pressure, but the requirements for processing equipment are higher and the processing time is relatively long. On the contrary, the pitch of the thread is small and shallow, and the pressure is small, but the processing is easier and the processing time is shorter. Good thread processing can make the internal and external threads occlude more closely, the force is even, and it can be smooth after repeated use.

Because the experimental process, conditions, and requirements of each unit are different, such as reactants, the amount of reactants, reaction time, temperature, heating rate, etc., the current hydrothermal synthesis reactor does not have a strict service life. However, it has been used for a long time, or used under high pressure for a long time, and the following situations occur, it is recommended to scrap it to avoid safety accidents:

1. Corrosion: If the inner wall or outer wall of the steel tank is mostly black and yellow, the threaded mouth is corroded, and the tightening is astringent, etc., it should be scrapped, and all the tanks of the same batch should be carefully checked.

Note: If it is not used for a long time or stored improperly, the above phenomena may occur and should be discarded.

2. Metal fatigue; the metal lid or gasket has deformation, warped edges, and tiny cracks. At this time, the can should be scrapped immediately, and all cans of the same batch should be carefully checked.

As a high-pressure vessel, the main function of the hydrothermal synthesis reactor is to provide a high-pressure environment, and how much this pressure can reach is the limit, which is related to the safety of the entire experiment. At present, the quality of hydrothermal synthesis reaction kettles on the market is uneven, requiring strict screening by laboratory personnel. Under the premise of selecting products, reasonable and normal use can avoid safety accidents.

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